University of Leicester

CO7206: Quiz #2 (8%)

Nov 14th, 2003


Solve four of the following five questions (each question equals 2%). You can use your printed notes or the course web page and the links provided there. You cannot use any other resources or cooperate with other students in solving the quiz. Duration is 40 min.


1.     System Dependence Graph

a.       Draw the program dependence graph (PDG) for the given program below that counts the number of words, characters, and lines in the input. Represent control dependence by solid lines and data dependence by dashed lines. Draw data dependence edges only for variables nl and c (i.e., do not draw data dependence edges for variables inword and nw and nc.


main() {
1   inword = NO;
2   nl = 0;
3   nw = 0;
4   nc = 0;
5   c = getchar();
6   while (c != EOF) {
7     nc = nc + 1;
8     if (c == '\n')
9        nl = nl + 1;
10    if (c == ' ' || c == '\n' || c == '\t')
11       inword = NO;
12    else if (inword == NO) {
13       inword = YES;
14       nw = nw + 1;
15    c = getchar();
16  printf("%d \n", nl);
17  printf("%d \n", nw);
18  printf("%d \n", nc);


2.     System Dependence Graph


a.       Deduce the backward static slice of this program at statement 16 for variable nl. Do so by following statement 16 backward on the PDG to the root through all possible control and dependence edges. You can write the answer by writing the serial numbers of the statements in the slice. Is this an executable slice??



b.      Calculate the Extended Cyclomatic Complexity for the program given in 1. Assume that every binary branching statement adds 1 to complexity and that every loop adds 2. Assume that every multi-part condition in a conditional branching statement adds an additional n  to complexity where n is the number of logical operators in the condition (this is plus the branching statement’s contribution to complexity).


3.     Complexity and Maintainabiliaty Metrics

Connect every item in the list on the left hand side to the relevant items on the right hand side (or write them in front of them). Note that an item from the LHS can be connected to many RHS items and vice versa. Each item should be connected at least once.


a.       Extended Cyclomatic Complexity

b.      Lines of Code

c.       Halstead Difficulty

d.      Maintainability Index

e.       Cyclomatic Complexity

f.        Fan in and Fan out



1.      Is meant to balance between logical complexity, vocabulary used, size and human insight of a program.

2.      Is language dependent

3.      Gives more weight to compound conditions

4.      Is Proportional to the number of distinct keywords used in the program

5.      Has a 3 terms and a 4 terms formulas

6.      Does not consider the code automatically generated by tools.

7.      Measures textual or lexical complexity only

8.      Can be used in testing by calculating the number of independent of test cases needed to cover all paths

9.      Is used in calculating Maintainability Index

10.  There is a wide controversy about the value of this metric

11.   Used to measure coupling between modules





4.     Web Enabling.

A1 Motor Association (AMA) club offers a range of services to its members. This includes emergency road assistance, towing, driver training, auto insurance, etc. AMA has a mainframe-based system for membership and services management. The system is used primarily by AMA employees. The management is considering providing some services through AMA’s Web site to attract more customers and reduce operation costs. In particular they like to offer self-registration and calculating auto insurance quotes through the Web.


The system provides a member registration function that the club staff use to register new members. This function allows the staff personal to log in, add the member details, verify its driver license information and check the member’s status against the club’s database (new member, returning member, VIP member, etc.). The management is thinking that this function cannot be opened as it is to customer access. Instead, customers should be allowed to enter most of the required data via a Web interface. Then, a staff will do the extra needed verification before approving an application and notifying the customer via email.


The system provides an Auto insurance quotation function that is currently used by the club staff to calculate quotes for customers. The same function can be used by the customer.


As a consultant, suggest a suitable Web-enabling solution(s) to AMA. Discuss different options that can be used for this specific case, if any, and the effort/technology that would be needed. Name the technologies and/or tools that your solution would use.


5.     Refactoring

In the program given in lab 6, identify 5 different bad smells in this code and at least one location where each smell exists and one refactoring that you would apply to clean it.